Naturalization is a legal process where an individual gains citizenship of a country other than the country they were born in. There are many ways to acquire citizenship by naturalization, including by statute where the individual would not need to put in any effort into the process. It can also be instituted by application and approval, following attainment of all the prerequisites that are set about in the constitution in order to do so.

Once naturalized, an individual is considered a full citizen of the country, and can therefore enjoy all the rights and liberties due to other citizens. The rapid increase in globalization has increased movement of people between countries, and has created scenarios where individuals gain citizenship by naturalization or other means. Dual citizenship is not formally recognized in the US, but an individual who is a US citizen and who takes up responsibilities of a citizenship in a foreign land typically does not lose their American citizenship.

In the United States, one can apply for naturalization by filling the form N-400, also known as the Application for Naturalization. In order to qualify for naturalization in the United States, an individual would need to have been a permanent resident for more than 5 years.

The criteria for consideration include being 18 or older at the time of filing, having had a green card for at least 5 years, they should have lived in their current residence for more than 3 months prior to making the application, and should have a continuous residence in the US for at least 5 years. The ability to read, speak and write English as well as knowledge and understanding of US history and government is essential, as these will be tested during interview. Finally, they have to be proven to be of good moral character.